Create Motivating YouTube Videos:

Using Dual Coding Theory and Multimedia Learning Theory

to Investigate Viewer Perceptions


Ya-Ting Teng (, Curtis J. Bonk, Alex J. Bonk, Meng-Fen Grace Lin, Georgette M. Michko



This research was part of a larger study that attempted to determine why people share, create, save, and comment on YouTube videos. It also explored motivational and instructional design elements of such shared online video. For this study, six videos representing three different types of videos were compared in this study (2 videos from each category): (1) text only, (2) text, pictures, and voicing, and (3) celebrity advocacy. There were 113 respondents randomly sent to one of these six Web-based surveys. As predicted by dual coding theory and multimedia learning theory, participants preferred videos which had multiple media elements-text, pictures, and voice. Such media rich videos were deemed to be more creative and engaging.


Key Findings

        People rated the videos with a combination of text, pictures, and voicing more positive and reported the type more engaging than the text only videos and the celebrity advocacy videos.

        Text only videos are informative but dull; people rated this type of videos is less sharable.

        While the richness of video seemed to be central to usability, the celebrity advocacy videos failed to arouse more positive perceptions than the text only videos. One possible explanation is that the two videos may not have created strong enough emotional connections with our respondents.

        Most people watching text only videos and the combination videos would recommend the video. A majority of celebrity advocacy viewers would not recommend the video that they watched.

        Although respondents reported different positive aspects and different engaging levels to these three types of videos, there was no significant difference among their ratings on a 5-star scale.



        The findings indicate that Dual Coding Theory and Multimedia Learning Theory can predict behaviors and reactions to shared online video. The richness of the online media influences not only how well people learn but also on viewers perception and motivation to watch.

        This finding is important for educators wishing to use YouTube and other shared online video in their classes. Such educators should attempt to find multimedia rich videos or those with text only. Perhaps the ultimate form of the video selected will depend on needs, subject matter, and timing within the course.

        There is a need for future research on what the 5-star scale represents and how to design a better rating scheme to identify quality of videos, so that the rating can facilitate instructors and students to select videos based on their educational values.

world is open